Wednesday, November 20, 2019
LM2 - Assignment Example On the other hand, distress causes results from negative pressure on an individual. As described in the chapter, striking a balance involves operating under medium levels of stress so that one can prove maximally efficient. There are many causes of stress and acknowledging these will help an individual find ways of coping. Stress may result from interpersonal relationships with others (102). A manager should strive to maintain healthy relationships with employees to avoid interpersonal wrangles. This will require a level of emotional regulation and change of attitude for Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Å"healthy attitudesÃ¢â¬ helped people to increase their tolerance for stress (109). Healthy social interaction encompasses the effort of all individuals involved. The manager should also ensure that the working environment and conditions foster good working relationships. Good relationships with workers can help a manager receive worthwhile social support, which in turn acts as a good remedy for any fo rm of stress. Attitude adjustment is a leading way to cope with different levels of stress. Attitude change in times of eustress can present an opportunity for a manager to develop resilience. Designing a good time plan can help a manager stay in good control of his time. ... All the entire processes of an organization from recruiting and training should help minimize any sources of stress within the organization. In addition to the above, a manager should strive to take charge of his life as one way of minimizing stress. Understanding the self and making the right decisions can help an individual to stay in good control of things and reduce stress. Moreover, taking good care of the self through a healthy lifestyle will keep one rejuvenated and ready tolerate any stress that comes his way. This is because the writer asserts that Ã¢â¬Ëlifestyle decisions play a significant role in influencing our physical health and well- being as well as our ability to cope successfully with the demands, challenges, and stresses of our workÃ¢â¬â¢ (107). Reaching out to people especially, friends, and family can help an individual stay in good shape enabling him or her to cope with stress. Preparedness will also keep a manager ready to handle anything that comes his wa y. Moreover, a manager should act proactively all the time in order to prevent occurrence of stress. According to Vroom & Yetton what are the five levels of participation in decision-making? Place an asterisk at the beginning of the one that is considered the fastest and put a number sign (#) next to the one that is considered the slowest in time to complete. As Vroom and Yetton described, managers may opt for any of the five levels of decision-making. The most critical question to address before settling on the best level is Ã¢â¬Ëare the decisions that we are making representative of the demographics of stake-holders?Ã¢â¬â¢ (142). Depending on the process involved in the option chosen, decision-making may take some
Monday, November 18, 2019
Journal 5 - Essay Example 2. My reaction about the distance activity was good in some distance. I mean this for personal distance and intimate distance because my partner was close to me and I could hear him. However, in other distances, public distance and social distance, I couldnt hear him very well because other students were talking too loud.Ã My comfortable distance was intimate distance and uncomfortable distance was public distance. 3. I learned a lot about myself and also about my team in the life highlights. For my life, the main event was when I graduated from my university. My team life highlights were different one of my team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s life highlight was when he was in Miami. The other group member had her life highlight working with kids in a school. For the Johari window, I learned that it consists of four parts: open free area, blind area, hidden area, and unknown area.Ã For the team I learned some interesting things about them that I did not know before. Likewise, my teammates also got to learn about me some more. 4. For the group work together on the case study, we broke it down into smaller individual pieces so it was more manageable for each of us. Because the three of us each had to work on our own part, we had to communicate some extra with each other to see if everything was still on schedule. For the training presentation, we came up with some ideas like the lock of cooperation and communication among teams and how these problems can be fixed. This would be really helpful to everyone else because these types of issues arise in every group at some stage. 5. Team building exercises can be great to do both for morale and gaining trust among each group member. Also, promoting diversity leads to a better working experience because each member can contribute from a vastly different point of view. For my future career, I will be able to take this
Saturday, November 16, 2019
SERVQUAL Model Summary and Evaluation 1.1 Introduction Service quality has taken into consideration in providing and accomplishing customers satisfaction recently (Hishamuddin Fitri Abu Hasan, Azleen Ilias, Rahida Abd Rahman Mohd Zulkeflee Abd Razak, 2008). Besides, there is a very obvious trend towards a growing concern that customers satisfaction is one of the valuable assets in building up a brand image (Srivastava et al., 2001), so brand image is very crucial in service industry, by which this element is critical in influencing customers perceptions and thus their loyalty to a company. Simoes and Dibb (2001) stated that brand image plays an important role in service industry due to the strong brand image persuades customers with a sense of acceptance and trustfulness. Research finding based on Bloemer et al. (1997) and Jones et al. (2002) also pointed out that there is a direct relationship between service quality towards customers perceptions, which in turn contributes to the brand image of a product or company. Based on the findings from Parasuraman et al. (1994) and Zeithaml et al. (1996), service quality is directly related to customer satisfaction and loyalty and thus on brand image, by affecting customers perceived value (service quality Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ perceived value Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ customers satisfaction Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ customers loyalty Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ brand image of a company). At first, there will have a brief explanation pertaining to the principle of the SERVQUAL model in this literature review; by which the dependent variable and independent variables of this research will be discussed in detail, followed by the findings from the previous research and studies. Lastly, this literature review will be ended up with a conclusion. 1.2 Theory of SERVQUAL Model Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985) developed service quality model which is named as SERVQUAL model or PZB model. They had conducted focus group interview in order to develop the first version of SERVQUAL model. They had created ten dimensions of the service quality by determining the similar criteria in the evaluation of customer. The ten dimensions of service quality included tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security and understanding. In this research, Parasuraman et al. (1985) stated that the overlapping among these ten dimensions of service quality maybe occurred and suggested that further research should be conducted. Therefore, SERVQUAL model was further developed and emerging the modified version of SERVQUAL model. In 1988, Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry had conducted an empirical study to measure the service quality towards the customers perceptions by using the ten dimensions as a basic structure. The results indicated that some variables in these ten dimensions were overlapped with each other. In the ten elements of service quality, tangibility, reliability and responsiveness remain constant while the remaining seven determinants were categorized into the last two dimensions which are assurance and empathy (Parasuraman et al., 1988). As a result, there are five service quality dimensions in the modified version of SERVQUAL model that affect customers satisfaction and thus brand image: Tangibility is related to the physical environment, facilities and the employees appearance. Reliability is the ability to carry out the services consistently and accurately. Responsiveness is the willingness of the employees in helping the customer to solve the problem. Assurance is the adequate knowledge that the employees possess and the ability of the employees in entrusting the confidence. Empathy is associated with the organization provide the caring and individualized attention to their customers. Buttle (1996) mentioned that SERVQUAL model is been used widely in measuring customers perceptions towards various types of services. Due to this reason, we are likely to choose SERVQUAL model to measure customers perceptions on brand image in our study. 1.3 Dependent variable 1.3.1 Brand image Service quality has significant effect on customers perceptual toward brand image, due to the statistics shown that strong brand image is needed to distinguish from competitors brands or products (Boltan and Drew 1991). At the same year of 1991, Schiffman and Kanuk also stated that customer will perceive brand that match and suit their images. As a result, service quality added value to customers by helping them differentiates the brand from competing brands. This means that customers perception of service quality is be associated brand image and customers are more likely to purchase the brand that provides the superior service quality. Keller (1993) supported the previous findings and stated that brand image is the customers perception that held in customer memory. Strong brand image is set in customers mind through their consumption experiences and their perceptions towards service quality provided by the product or company. In the year of 1996, Agarwal and Rao continued the study and mentioned that brand image is based on superior and favorable brand rooted in consumers memory. In 2003, Keller repeated the theory and reinforced that brand image refers to strong, positive and favorable brand association in memory which result in a positive effect, attitude and overall perceived quality. Holbrook and Batra (1987) stated that the perceive quality affect the brand loyalty and thus also influence the images of a brand. Meanwhile, service quality is clearly defined as the customers judgment about a brands excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988; Aaker and Jacobson, 1994). Dobni and Zinkhan, (1990) assumed that brand image is refer to the reasoned and emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands. Zeithaml (1988) suggest that brand image is built through consumers consumption experiences with the excellence or favorable of service being provided. Therefore, the service quality perception is core dimension that help to create a high value of a strong brand image in which directly influences consumers purchase evaluation. According to Alba and Hutchinson (1987) and Walker et al. (1987), although brand image, brand attitude and service quality act independently, however, under some conditions, three of dimensions are interrelated with each other. Keller (1998) supported the brand image is multidimensional, by which it includes the attitude and behavior according to the brand and the perceived service quality. The process in order to develop a trusted brand image is based on the customers experiences towards the brand through both direct and indirect interaction with the brand (Keller, 1993 and Krishnan, 1996). Direct contact with brand involves usage; trial and satisfaction in consumption while indirect contact with brand involves advertising, word-of-mouth and brand reputation. In 1996, another researcher Meldan also mentioned the introduction of innovative products and services quality is to improve the positive perception of brand image. She supported the theories which were held by Park, Jaworski, Macinnis in 1996 and Fatt in 1997, by which they stated the service quality is very important in influence the image of a brand through the level of customers familiarity, experience and trust of a brand. Based on these theorie s, Aydin and Ozer (2005) concluded there is reciprocal relationship between both customers perceptions and brand image. There are five dimensions of brand image being identified by Aaker (1991) which included perceived service quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand asset and customer base. However, perceived of service quality have the most significant impact toward brand image among those five dimensions. Keller (1993) indicated that the service quality may improve brand image by enhancing customers loyalty and thus increasing the probability of brand choice as well as reducing the competitive marketing. Service quality can affect the brand image of particular products or companies directly and indirectly (Kirmani and Zeithml, 1993). The study held by Kirmani and Zeithml in 1993 shown that the dimensions of service quality tangibility, reliability and empathy are basic clues for in constructing a strong brand image (Bailey and Ball 2006). 1.4 Independent variables 1.4.1 Tangibility Tangibility is one of the dimensions in the SERVQUAL model. It can be defined as the physical evidence in the service industry (Parasuraman et al., 1988). It is the physical facilities and equipment, employees appearance, physical representations of services and the physical environment. Wakefield and Blodgett (1999) also mentioned that physical environment will significantly influence the customers perceptions towards brand image. Same theory goes to the size or the number of facilities and equipment provided by a company in judging customers perceptions (Umbach, 2002). One of the examples to support the dimension of tangibility can be seen in servicescape, by which it is the physical places where services are delivered (Chua, Mohhiddin Othman, Boo, Muhammad Shahrim Abdul Karim, and Sridar Ramachandran, 2009). It can be said that tangibility has a significant impact customers perceptions towards brand image. However, services is intangible, therefore, customers can only see and experience the tangible services provided by the company, such as the facilities and equipment, as well as the appearance of the employees. Those of the tangible services are known as clues (Zeithaml, Parasuraman, and Berry, 1992). The clues are the capabilities of the company and the quality of the environment. Berry (1980) stated that the way of managing the tangibles services will directly affect customers satisfaction, due to the reason that those tangibles services are critical elements in shaping brand image. According to the research finding of Kayaman, R. and Arasli, H. (2007), there is a significant relationship between service quality and brand image. They were mentioning that tangibility is associated with the physical characteristics provided by the company. This variable serves as a key element by which it may be able to attract more and more customers and thus gain competitive advantage over the competitors. Besides, element of tangibility is able to deliver both direct and indirect result on brand image. As a result, most of the companies nowadays are likely to formulate and implement strategies that are useful in grabbing potential customers and maintaining current customers by using eye-catching physical structures and providing a unique and comfortable environment for the services delivered. 1.4.2 Responsiveness Another independent variable that will affect customer perceptions towards service quality is responsiveness. The meaning of responsiveness is the willingness to help the customers, to provide prompt and well service to the clients, problem resolution when the customers faced and complaint handling (Reichheld and Sasser, 1990). Responsiveness should be expanded and this is because they believed that this variable is very important (Parasuraman et al, 1988). Previous studies suggest that the responsiveness is critical not only as a measure of service quality but can use as a best tool for uncovering areas of service quality strengths and weakness (Kettinger and Lee, 1997, 1999; Pitt, Watson, Kavan, 1995; Van Dyke et al., 1997). By knowing the strengths and weaknesses, the organization will enhance the service quality in order to increase the brand image in this competitive market (Bedi, 2010; Kassim and Abdullah, 2010; Kumar et al., 2010). Furthermore, good customer service is part of the responsiveness. Employees responsiveness takes customer service a step further (Lovelock, 1983). By using technology, including websites, email and telephone systems, it enables the customers to quickly get the information that they need is one of the aspect for responsiveness (Lovelock, 1983). It generally refers to being responsive to the service subscribers (Heeter, 1989). The employees also have to prepare the aptitude and desire to provide the customers with effective resolutions on the first contact whenever possible (GroÃËnroos, 1982; Oliver, 1981). A high level of responsiveness, representing and expressing as a trust cue, can convey the trustworthiness to the customers (Corritore et al., 2003). There is a significant relationship between the service quality and customers perception on brand image (Moliner and sanchez, 2003). Attachment theory suggests that beyond knowing who or what a brand stands for, strong attachments only mean when the brand is responsive to the consumer needs. In fact, psychologists argue that responsiveness is one of the critical element that keep relationships is going (Bebko and Prokop, 1996). Employees should quickly respond to the customers request at the same time, eliminating all the unnecessary errors and cannot make the customers to spend lots of time to wait (Guseman, 1981; Levitt, 1981; Murray and Schlacter, 1990). A responsive brand fulfills consumers relevant needs or goals. The goals can be many and varied for depending on the consumer and the situation (McDougall and Snetsinger, 1990). They may include broad level needs, such as needs for status, stimulation, belongingness or individuality, all the way down to situation specific goals (Parasuraman et al., 1985, 1988; Zeithaml et al., 1990; 1993). Of course, being responsive means that there must be something in the product and the marketing behind it that creates the perception that the brand uniquely in order to achieve these needs and goals (Anderson and Zeithaml, 1984; Garvin, 1982; Tse and Wilton, 1988). Hence, it is crucial for all the employees to exhibit a courteous and friendly behavior when delivering services to the customers in order to increase their satisfaction towards the brand image (Firdaus Abdullah, Rosita Suhaimi, Gluma Saban Jamil Hamali, 2011). 1.4.3 Reliability According to Word Net, reliability indicated the trait of being dependable or reliable. Reliability indicates the employees are able to provide the services accurately, consistently and dependably (Parasuraman et al, 1988, LeBlanc Nguyen, 1997). In another way, reliability also means that the services are correctly performed and defined as the consistency of the services performance. Besides, reliability means the organization keeping their promises, trustworthiness toward the services quality of employees to avoid anything goes wrong. In product and service industry, it plays as a key component that will influence the customer behavior towards brand image and thus on their purchase intention. Therefore, different services that provided to the customers will bring different level of customer satisfaction based on the services provided by the product (Yuksel, 2001). Reliability is the driving force of the responsiveness of customers behavior (Antreas A. Spiros and Vlassis, 1999). It means that reliability of services is interrelated with the customers satisfaction and perception once the services are provided and performed (Antreas A. Spiros and Vlassis, 1999). It is associated with the services quality environment and delivery systems that work well with good quality of service which include staff attitude, knowledge and skill (Walker 1990). For example, it provides the service at the designated time. Parasuraman et al. (1991) predicted that reliability is concerned with the result of services as compared to other variables in SERVQUAL model. This theory is supported by Glaveli, Petridou, Liassides and Spathis (2006), by which they strengthened the element of reliability considers as the service providers ability to provide accurate and dependable services in which included items such as personnel training, interruption of service, absence of e rrors and punctuality. Berry et al. (1985) argued that reliability is the most important factor in guaranteeing both customers satisfaction and dissatisfaction. This assumed that managers and employees need to provide a reliable service and reduce unreliable service to the customers in order to achieve a high level of customer satisfaction. In 1990, Zeithaml et al. also held that service reliability is one the most significant variables in the SERVQUAL model. As a result, most of the organizations are likely to include the issues of reliability in setting their mission statement and the standard of services to be provided (Malhotra, Ulgado, Agarwal, Shainesd Wu, 2005). So, both employers and employees must aware to the importance of reliability and find ways to improve the reliability of services. Reliability is one of the important dimensions that will lead to customers satisfaction through customers perceptions and thus affect the image of the brand (Patrick, Karl J., John E. 1996). A consistent measure is needed when working out with employees so that services can be performed adequately. In addition, the frequently changing of work procedures will improve the service performance as well. Again, this ensures customers perceptions towards service quality and consequently building up a strong brand image towards a product or a company. The administration and examination of departments have provided the reliable and accurate services also known as the reliability services (Muhammed Ehsan Malik et al., 2010). It held true when the brand image of an organization which is associated with excellence reliability services is considered as one of the means to attract customers purchase intention through good brand image. The study from Parasuraman et al. (1991), Muhammed Ehsan Malik et al. (2010), Ham and Hayduk (2003) proved that reliability has the strongest impact on consumers judgment, as among the five determinants of services quality. This philosophy was again proved by Hishamuddin Fitri Abu Hassan et al. in the year of 2008. 1.4.4 Assurance Another dimension in SERVQUAL model is assurance. Assurance shows the knowledge that the employees posses and how the employees conveys the trust and confidence (Parasuraman et al., 1988). Assurance can also be known as the organization offers the credible and secure service to its customers (Donnelly, Wisniewski, Dalrymple Curry, 1995). Initially, according to the research findings of Parasuraman et al. (1985), there were ten dimensions that regrouped to the five dimensions of service quality. In those five dimensions, there are three original determinants which are tangibles, responsiveness and reliability while another two determinants were assurance and empathy which, were derived from the other seven dimensions of service quality. Assurance is derived from the competence, courtesy, credibility and security of the service. This is because those four dimensions have overlapped with each other and the new dimension of assurance is formed. According to the research findings of Aydin and Ozer (2005), there is a significant relationship between customers perception about service quality and brand image. They were mentioning that assurance has a significant positive impact on brand image. Employees give an expression of the service quality in customers eyes (GroÃËnroos, 1994). It means employees give the customers the greatest concept of what the brand really is. Employees competence and abilities in delivering the service performance is also very important so that the customers know their roles and willingness in performing those services otherwise their inevitable frustration will destroy the brand image (Davies, 1996). Not only the actions or behaviors of employees but also the morale of employees influences the service quality and it will impact upon customers perception on the brand image accordingly (Schneider and Bowen, 1993). Besides, a strong brand image is a part of brand strength measurement model that based on how the customers putting trust on a particular brand over other competitors (Lassar et al., 1995). One of the high-level associations that consumers can accommodate a brand is credibility (Keller, 2003 b). The importance is also supported by another statement from Aakers study (1997) on the basic brand personality factor analysis, and she state that sincerity was the highest eigenvalue factor. In Olivers service quality theory (1980) states that the customers will judge that the service quality is low if the service performance does not meet or either exceed their expectations. Ultimately, customers are willing to commend the specific brand to other people when their perception of service quality is high (Parasuraman et al.s, 1988, 1991b). This is supported by the statement from cf. Keaveney (1995) that there is a positive correlation between high customers perception on brand image and word-of -mouth communication. In short, a strong brand not only increases the customers trust so that they are better in observing and understand the intangible but it also reduces customers perceived monetary, social and security risks Simoes and Dibb (2001). 1.4.5 Empathy Empathy is one of the dimensions which out of five dimensions of SERVQUAL model that is created and derived from the accessibility, communication and understanding. Parasuraman ct al., 1988 said that empathy is originate from approachability, communication and understandable in the ten dimension of service quality as well as the essential of caring given to the individual special attention and caring to the customers. Besides, approachable services that are provided by organization are also known as empathy to meet or identify the needs of specific customers (Donnelly et al., 1995). In order to improve the empathy in service quality, one of the approaches is by collecting the feedback from customers after they experienced the service performances (Soutar MeNeil, 1996). For psychology today, what is empathy and how its related to our livelihood? Empathy means the capability to be comprehensive to another peoples condition, point of view, feelings and perceptions. When we are facing or experiencing the feeling of empathy, then we are able to catch out someone internal feelings of empathy. Some people especially with mentally disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and so forth, they have intimate link with the ability to empathize. (Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD, 2010). According to Bowman and Narayandas (2001), the value perceptions of loyal customers are normally related to empathy and sincerity due to they are devote for creating the sense of interactive fairness. Individualized attention offered by the organization to meet the customers need also consider as empathy (Salvador-Ferrer, 2010). Shoeb (2011) summarized that the willingness of organization in listening to what customers had said is the empathy services that organization has provided to individual pleasantly as well as concerned with the individual by treating them well and respecting them. It can be said that empathy services concerned with how the employees approach and behave towards the customers. Hanaysha et al. (2011) mentions that there is a moderately and optimistically relationship between the empathy and customers perception on brand image. There is another research shows that there is a significant relationship between the empathy with the satisfaction (Nawaz. et. al., 2011). It means that empathy reflects how does the organization treats and cares the individual by identify their needs and wants as everybody must be treated fairly by providing the same services. 1.5 Conclusion At first, we had proposed our title of The Impact of Service Quality towards Customer Perceptions on Brand Image. The purpose for our research is used to identify the new knowledge that have not done by the previous studies. The concept of the service quality and brand image had been review in this study. In this research, SERVQUAL model is used as the applications in our study. This model is essential in our study as our research framework is derived from this model. Based on the findings, we found out that five dimension of the modified version of service quality model have the strongly impact on brand image. Service quality has the strongly correlated with the brand image. This research study is to increase our understanding of service brand from the customers perspective. Moreover, it provides the people especially service marketers the understanding of the associations that may exist and how they impact on the brand image. By understanding these associations and the inherent ris ks associated with service procurement, they will be able to manage the brand strategies well and to make better branding decisions.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Have you ever thought about having kids and raising them in a way where your family, friends, and even your own kids judge you and see you as this monstrous savage of a being? Being raised by the Chinese style of parenting or better known as Ã¢â¬Å"Tiger ParentingÃ¢â¬ I understand what it was like being put through what Amy Chua put her kids through. Therefore, I understand completely what Amy Chua is trying to explain in her book Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. The advancements and traditions of child parenting have significantly impacted society by their many techniques of parenting. For example Chinese style parenting or better known as Ã¢â¬Å"Tiger parentingÃ¢â¬ . In this essay I will examine three issues; two points of disagreement, and one point of agreement to Amy ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. The argument article I will be referring to is Tiger Mother: Popular and Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Asian Culture and Parenting by Perdue Universit yÃ¢â¬â¢s P. Priscilla Lui and David Rollock. David Rollock is a Clinical Associate Professor at Purdue University who received his Ph.D. at Yale in 1989. Lui is also a Professor at Purdue University that specializes in Psychology treatment and research. Amy Chua is a law professor and author of two books on international affairs, even though readers of Tiger Mother get only a little tiny glance of that part in her life, with weird, thrown off-lines such as "Meanwhile, I was still teaching my courses at Yale and finishing up my second book" (7) while also "traveling continuously, giving lectures about democratization and ethnic conflict." (7) Her third book points away from global concerns to focus intensely on Amy Chua's attempt to raise her two beautiful daughters in the way that her ... ...ended up finding common ground. Indeed, there are indications of stereotypically Asian beliefs about the quest of prestigious careers and expected academic accomplishments may elevate risks to self esteem and internal mental health issues, as does identification with only high status groups by people with multiethnic heritages. Ending a parenting story when a child is only 15 years old seems too short; in fact, it might not be entirely possible to really understand the complete impact of Chua's efforts until her daughters have kids of their own.Ã¢â¬Æ' Works Cited Chua, Amy. Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print. Rollock, David. "Tiger Mother: Popular and Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Asian Culture and Parenting." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Oct. 2013: 450-56. Print. Chang, Elizabeth New York: Penguin Press, 2011. Print.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Susan GlaspellÃ¢â¬â¢s one act play Trifles is based upon actual events which occurred in Iowa at the turn of the century. Between 1899 and 1901 she worked as a reporter for the Des Moines News, during which time she covered a murder trial of a farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Margaret Hossack. The play was written some years later. (enotes. com, 2005) This essay aims to analyze the themes and ideas presented here by analyzing the central character. The full text of this play can be retrieved from http://www. vcu. edu/engweb/eng384/trifles. htm This paper aims to show, by conducting an analysis of the central character, Mrs. Wright (the accused), and discussing her thoughts, feelings and actions, how she is affected by events, other characters and environmental culture and values. Mrs. Wright is a farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife at the turn of the century, at a time when feminism was beginning to come to the fore, but many years before the active burning of bras, in the 1960s, without children. Moreover, she is married to a man who is not known in the outside community for his social skills Ã¢â¬â to quote Mrs. Hale, one of the female characters in the play, to pass the time of day with him would be like a raw wind that gets to the bone. We never actually meet Mrs. Wright in person, but it is from the conversation of the others that we learn about her. For instance, from the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s observations, and despite the comments of the men, we learn that Mrs. Wright is in fact a good homemaker Ã¢â¬â she quilts well, is diligent about her preserves, the pans were neatly arranged under the sink, and the roller towel was in fact clean prior to Mrs. WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s departure (it was dirtied by the man who came in later). She also had bread set ready to be baked. This attitude displayed by the males in the play is indicative of unfair judgements made by men at the time. Even the title of the play, Trifles, indicates that what women worried about at the time was considered unimportant. Thoughts, feelings and actions Mrs. Wright, prior to her marriage, was a singer. We learn also that later in her marriage, she buys a bird. It becomes apparent that Mr. Wright cannot tolerate the birdÃ¢â¬â¢s singing and kills it. The women deduce that Mrs. Wright has begun to equate herself with the bird Ã¢â¬â initially feeling caged, stifled and killed Ã¢â¬â prior to her marriage, she went out, sang and had fun, and in the very last act, the cage broken, symbolizing freedom, if not of the birdÃ¢â¬â¢s body, at least of its spirit. Unwittingly, in one of the opening sentences, Mr. Hale contributes to this image of Mrs. Wright being oppressed by commenting that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think that what his wife wanted mattered much to Mr. Wright. Having lost everything prior to this, Mrs. Wright could not tolerate the loss of the one thing that she loved. This death of the bird was the act of anger that the men did not find. Her marriage has been similar to a caging, killing (of herself), and in the final act of killing her husband, she has in fact set herself free Ã¢â¬â although ironically she is now in jail. Mrs. Hale hits the nail on the head when in hindsight she realizes indirectly that Mrs. Wright was lonely Ã¢â¬â the unpleasantness and coldness of the place which kept her away kept others away too. With the death of the bird the one thing that was fun had now gone too. Interestingly, the bird died of strangulation Ã¢â¬â and Mr. Wright also died because of being constricted around his neck. Environmental culture The men have gone there with their minds made up and to them it is just a matter of trying to find the proof. The women have gone there with no such convictions, through going about their business they find the truth and yet are still able to show compassion Ã¢â¬â they decide to take Mrs. Wright the quilt, so that she can undo the last untidy square and complete a nice piece of work. Doing this, they find the dead body of the bird. Having been constricted and confined in life, the bird has been laid to rest in the most beautiful place Mrs. Wright can think of. They also find good fruit and decide to take this to her to convince her that after all her fruit did not rot. Instinctively, they know that this will make her feel better about herself. It is interesting that although it is the men who are there to investigate the case and get to the bottom of things, it is the women, through their observations and insight, get to the truth of the matter. They are the ones who notice, and understand, the erratic sewing of the last quilted square, for instance. The men believe that everything is clear, except for a reason for doing it Ã¢â¬â which they have not discovered despite having occupied the same premises as the women for the same amount of time. The women think briefly about disclosing this Ã¢â¬â their eyes meet Ã¢â¬â but they say nothing. They do not discuss it with the men Ã¢â¬â it would not be their place. Women at the time were considered inferior, the men where the authority. Thus, although some do know the truth, in fact, because of environmental cultures and the norm of the time, it is never discovered fully. Over 100 years later, one must believe, and be grateful that this would no longer happen. We have learned through trial and error and instances such as this that there are a variety of viewpoints and insights that can help us get to the truth. Works Cited Enotes. com, 2005, retrieved 10 April 2006 from the website http://www. enotes. com/trifles/ Trifles, Susan Glaspell, 1916, retrieved 10 April 2006 from the website http://www. vcu. edu/engweb/eng384/trifles. htm
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Scientists Determine Publication Date of TheIliad Homers Iliad codex from approximately the late 5th-early 6th century A.D. Image: Public Domain Evolutionary theorist Mark Pagel (University of Reading) and his colleagues, geneticistÃ Eric Altschuler (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey) and linguistÃ Andreea Calude (also of Reading as well asÃ Ã the Sante Fe Institute in New Mexico) have dated Ã one of literatures most ancient works,Ã The Iliad,Ã to 762 B.C. give or take fifty years. You might be surprised to learn that scientists have applied the same techniques used to track how genes mutate to dating the codex.Ã Languages behave just extraordinarily like genes, Pagel says. It is directly analogous. We tried to document the regularities in linguistic evolution and study Homers vocabulary as a way of seeing if language evolves the way we think it does. Pagel and his team explained toÃ Inside ScienceÃ how the process worked: [We] used a linguistic tool called the Swadesh word list, put together in the 1940s and 1950s by American linguist Morris Swadesh. The list contains approximately 200 concepts that have words apparently in every language and every culture, Pagel says. These are usually words for body parts, colors and necessary relationships like father and mother. [Then we] looked for Swadesh words in the Iliad and found 173 of them. Then, [we} measured how they changed. [We] took the language of the Hittites, a people that existed during the time the war may have been fought, and modern Greek, and traced the changes in the words from Hittite to Homeric to modern. It is precisely how [we] measure the genetic history of humans, going back and seeing how and when genes alter over time. The other thing that researchers have determined is that a single person named Homer is unlikely to have existed. Ã Brian Rose, professor of classical studies and curator of the Mediterranean section at the Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum, says it is clear the Iliad is a compilation of oral tradition going back to the 13thÃ century B.C. Ã Rose contends that The Iliad is anÃ amalgam of lots of stories about Helen, Odysseus, Agamemnon, Ajax, and others that focused on conflicts in one particular area of northwestern Turkey. While researchers are unsure about the authorship ofÃ The Iliad,Ã they are relatively certain that the city of Troy actually existed and think they know where it was located, thanks to the nineteenth century work of twoÃ archaeologists,Ã Heinrich Schliemann and the Frank Calvert, who excavated the Citadel of Troy and found evidence of a battle. Schliemann and Calvert dated the conflict to the twelfth century b.c. but whether the artifacts are from the epic war described inÃ The IliadÃ or are theÃ remnants of a civil war remains unclear.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Scarlet Ibis Research Paper Example The Scarlet Ibis Paper The Scarlet Ibis Paper Ã¢â¬Å"The Scarlet IbisÃ¢â¬ Mr. P English II Living in a Normal World If you had a family member that had a physical disability, would you treat them the same with precautions or would you treat them differently? People may think life would be easier for a life as a disabled person but truly it is extremely hard. They have to deal with looks from people they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know, and from their family treating them differently. In The Scarlet Ibis, by James Hurst, Doodle, is a handicapped little boy. Everyone says that he will not be able to do most things that kids without disabilities can do but DoodleÃ¢â¬â¢s brother never gives up on trying. Families that have a handicapped must treat that person with the utmost respect. One part of respecting a person is to have appropriate expectations for them. Ã¢â¬Å"I wanted a brother. But Mama, crying, told me that even if William Armstrong lived, he would never do these things with me. He might not, she sobbed, even be Ã¢â¬Ëall thereÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (90). Although Doodle was born with disabilities, he has two eyes, two legs, two ears and he is just like everyone else. Doodle was born with a health condition that did make him different from other kids his own age, but that does not mean he is not allowed to live his life as others live theirs. From birth Doodle was told he would not be able to do the things that others have because he has a heart condition. Yet, Doodle is still a person and no matter what happens in life he should be treated the way others want to be treated. All Doodle wants to do is live life to the fullest and that is how it shall be. Families with handicapped members have to set forward for all of the positive outcomes of life, other than have a bunch of negatives. If you lead a handicapped with only negative expectations, as like Doodle, he will never have the full amount of respect for you, as well as your other family members. As people know, people with handicaps have a difficult time. Many people that have a handicap have a hard enough time getting people to accept who they are. It might be difficult for the family to finally understand to the full extent that the handicapped member should be treated the same as other members but with a little caution. From the start of DoodleÃ¢â¬â¢s life, his family failed to treat him the same as everyone else. Ã¢â¬Å"The doctor had said that he mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t get too excited, too hot, too cold, or too tired and that he must always be treated gently. A long list of donÃ¢â¬â¢ts went with him, all of which I ignored once we got out of the houseÃ¢â¬ (91). Doodle might have had disabilities but that does not mean that he should not be treated any different than anyone else. He tries so hard to be normal because his family makes him feel like he does not belong in their family. Especially his parents, they had a very pessimistic outlook on Doodle. No matter what the disability might be, everyone deserves to be treated in the same way. While people grow up, they learn right from wrong. They learn how to treat a person as well as how they want to be treated. As Doodle is growing older, all he ever wants is to be treated normally. He would not be able to fulfill his life as everyone else, so he wanted to make the most out of it now. His family did not believe that he would live for long. This came to be because his father commissioned the building of a casket. DoodleÃ¢â¬â¢s real name was William Armstrong. The narrator describes the name as, Ã¢â¬Å"Which was like tying a big tail on a small kite, such a name sounds good only on a tombstoneÃ¢â¬ (90). It is obvious that DoodleÃ¢â¬â¢s parents had a very pessimistic outlook for their son. They seemed to be more concerned with his potential death than the possibility of him having a full life. Doodle kept trying day after day to gain respect from them. Families that have handicapped members should focus on the possible positive outcomes of life rather than the negatives because the pessimistic point of view only leads to the lowering of expectations and disrespect towards the family members. If you had a disabled family member that was disabled or handicapped, would you treat them the same or differently? Where ever you may go in life you will always run into a handicapped person, whether theyre just an elder, or they are physically handicapped. You should treat them differently than you would usually treat others without handicaps because they are fragile, and incapable of some things that others might be able to do. Many people that have disabilities struggle throughout life. Doodle should be treated differently than others because he is fragile and the doctors said that anything might cause his little heart to stop. He has not developed to the point where all the other kids his age are. Handicaps need more help because they are not able to do the things that people can do. If you have a family member with disabilities you should have more precautions around them. Many people with handicaps have been told that they have a limited amour of time to live or that they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to do the things that other people their age are able to do. They fight each day to achieve something that that might help them accomplish things in life no matter how hard it might be for them.